Ual Klas Education

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Khawvel ram hrang hrang 134 te’n an lo tih tawh danin Manmohan Singh-a kaihhruai UPA sorkar chuan kum 2009 khan ramchhunga naupang maktaduai tam tak te tan zirna chu dikna chanpual (right) ah chantirin ram danpui thlak hial khawpin hma a la a, Right to Education (RTE) dan a duang ta a, Mizoramah pawh he dan hi kum 2011 atang khan hman ve a ni a. Mahse, tualchhunga kalpui a nih danah hian naupangte chu an dikna chanpual phuhruk sak an ni lo nasa hle tih Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) chuan a hmuchhuak a. Naupang sikul kaina tur nei lo sang chuang an la awm cheu bakah, chhungkaw harsa zawk atanga naupang sikul kai rualte tan private leh unaided sikulah te seat dahhran (reserved) sak chu a awm lova. Zirtirtu an indaih lo nasa hle chu thuhran, an zinga sing chuang teh meuh chu rawih an nih laiin an qualified lo hrim hrim bawk a. Naupangte zirna dinhmunah sorkar statistics theuh theuh a in an loh nuai bakah sumhman dan a dik lo nasa hle a, RTE kalpuina tura SSA Mission sum hman tur cheng vbc 300 chuang daih sorkarin a dawn loh phah hial.

 

ZIRLAI NAUPANG TE NGAIHTHAHNA

Sikul awm lohna khua 15 ah sikul kai rual naupang 1,265

Right to Education (RTE) Act hian sikul awm lohna khua leh veng ah te sikul din a ngai pawimawh hle a, he dan hman tan atanga kum thum chhungin sikul din ngei ni se tih chu a inziah dan a ni reng a, sikul din theihna khua emaw, veng emaw leh din a nih dan tur hi sorkar in a duang tur a ni a. CAG chuan Primary sikul din theihna tura ngaih khua/veng paruk, sikul kai rual naupang 412 awmna hmunah leh Upper Primary School (UPS) din theihna tura ngaih khua/veng pakua, sikul kai rual naupang 853 awmna hmunah te chuan sikul din an la ni lo tih a hmuchhuak a.

 

Naupang sikul kai lo te ngaihthahna lian tak

RTE dan hian naupang kum ruk leh kum 14 inkar sikul kal lo te (Out of School Children, OeSC) ngaipawimawhin anni hian an rualpui sikul kal te thiam ang an thiam ve a duh a, chuvang chuan heng OoSC te hi zawn chhuah a, a bika zirtirna pek vek tur an ni a ti a. Mizorama RTE dan hmanna Mizoram RTE Rules, 2011 chuan he beihpui thlak a nih theih nan hian Village Council tin te’n an huamchhunga naupang zawng zawng chu in tina lutchhuakin an chhinchhiah tur a ni a ti bawk.

SSA Mission, Mizoram chhinchhiah dan chuan kum 2010-11 leh 2015-16 inkar khan chawhrualin kum tin hetianga naupang sikul kai lo hi 7,455 an awm ziah ang a ni a, chung zinga mi te chu kum tin chawhrualin 5,084 a bika zirtir an ni bawk.

SSA Mission chuan heti hi a ni tih mahsela, CAG chuan hei hi thil ni theiin a ngai lo. A chhan chu, hetianga sikul kai lo naupang te hi tute nge an nih hre turin VC te’n household survey an nei miah lova, an huamchhunga naupang awmzat leh lehkha an zir dan pawh an chhinchhiah bawk lova, Aizawl leh Lunglei district-a sikul 60 lai an zir bingna ah pawh eng sikul mahin OoSC te hi an admit lova, anni zirtir tura rawih Special Trainer te pawhin zirtir an nei lo bawk.

Hetianga thil awmdan a hmuhchhuah hnu hian SSA Mission Director chuan CAG hnenah VC te’n household survey nei lo mahsela, khaw tina zirtirna lam ngaihtuahtu Village Education Committee te leh Cluster Resource Centre coordinator-te’n naupang sikul kai lo te hi kum tin an chhinchhiah ziah a ti a. Ama’rawhchu, CAG chuan hetianga chhinchhiahna te hi audit tura pholan a awm loh vangin awih har a ti hle.

Chu chauh pawh chu a la ni lo: Lunglei SSA bikah hian naupang sikul kai lo te a bika zirtir turin kum tin mi engemawzat (12 atanga 200 lai) Special Trainer angin rawih ziah an ni a. RTE dan hian a ngaih pawimawh vangin naupang sikul kai lo te chhawmdawl nan hian Lunglei SSA tan bik kum nga chhungin cheng vbc 7.81 lai dahhran a ni nghe nghe. Mahse, tarlan tawh angin, Lunglei SSA hnuaiah hian naupang sikul kai lote a bika chhawmdawl an awm loh vangin heng Special Trainer te hi sikul pangaiah rawih an ni zawk a, an vai hian kum nga chhungin cheng vbc 1.72 an hlawh a. Mahse, CAG sawi dan chuan heng Special Trainer, sikul pangaia hnathawh tir ni leh ta si te hi rawih an nih laiin an qualification neih ngai chin bithliah a awm lo.

 

Chhungkaw harsa zawkte naupang tan reservation siam lo

RTE dana sawi hlawh ber pawl chu chhungkaw harsa zawk fate tana private leh sorkar puihna dawng lo (un-aided) sikulah te seat za zela 25 dahhran hi a ni a. Hei hian hun rei tak chhung chu ramchhung chanchinbu ah te pawh ziahlan a ni fo a, private leh un-aided sikul tam tak chuan an do nasa hle a, an do chhan an sawi ber chu hetianga chhungkaw harsa zawk fate leh hnam hnuaihnung zawk naupang te an sikula an luh tir ve chuan an thiam loh bik avangin an sikul zirna pekin a tawrh phah an hlauh thu a ni a. Mahse, heng mite chawisan hna thawktute chuan India rama sum leh pai dinhmun avanga inthliarna nasa tak leh hnam tha nia inngai te’n hnam hnuaihnung nia an ngaihte an hmuhsit em avangin sikul neitute’n an do niin an ngai.

Mizoram leh Mizo khawtlang inrelbawl danah sum leh pai dinhmun leh hnam inlak bingna thil a awm lo tih chu mi nawlpui ngaihdan nimahsela, Mizoram RTE Rules 2011 chuan BPL chhungkaw fate tan seat za zela 25 hauh ni se a ti a. Mahse, hei hi tun thlengin tihhlawhtlin a la ni lo a, tihhlawhtlin a nih loh vang hian BPL chhungkaw fate chuan an chanvo an hmuh loh phah a ni tiin CAG chuan a tarlang.

 

ZIRTIRTUTE RAWIH DAN LEH CHHAWR DAN DIK LO NASA

SSA hnuaia zirtirtu rawih sing hnih dawn qualified lo

RTE hnuaia zirtirtute qualification belhchian dawl lo hi ram pum huap thil a ni hrim hrim. Kum 2010 August thla khan National Council of Teacher Education chuan he dan hnuaia zirtirtute qualification tur a bituk a, mahse, Mizoram sorkar chuan he qualification bituk hi kum nga ral hnu, March 2015-ah a hmang tan ve chauh. Heti a nih vang hian kum 2010-11 leh 2015-16 inkar khan Mizoram SSA hnuaiah zirtirtu 19,810 lai chu qualified lo an ni a, SSA hnuaia zirtirtu rawih zawng zawng zaa 29 tling thelh (28.83%) chu qualified lo an ni tihna a nih chu. Kum 2011 leh 2013 inkar bik phei kha chuan SSA zirtirtu zaa 40 chuang chu qualified lo an ni nghe nghe. CAG chuan hei hi a ngaimawh hle a, “Heng thil te hian sikul hrang hranga zirna chuan duhthu a sam loh a rinawm,” a ti nghe nghe.

 

Zirtirtu indaih lohna nasa hle si zirtir hna ni lo zirtirtute thawh tir nasa

Zirtirtu qualified lo an tam chu thuhran, zirtirtu mamawhna sikul ah te zirtirtu awmsa sem zai an ni meuh lova. RTE dan hian Primary sikul tinah zirtirtu pahnih tal leh Upper primary sikulah pali theuh an awm tur a ni a tih laiin, Mizoram sikul hrang hrangah chuan hei hi a ni lo nasa hle. Kum 2010-11 chung phei kha chuan zirtirtu indaih loh hi a nasa hle a, sikul 111 lai chu zirtirtu pakhat chauh enkawlna hnuaiah a awm a, chawhrualin hemi kum hian zirtirtu pakhatin naupang 60 dawn an enkawl tihna ang a ni. Zirtirtu indaih lohna hi a zia deuh na in kum 2014-15 khan zual lam a pan leh a, sikul 73 ah zet zirtirtu pakhat chauh an awm a, a kum lehah pawh a tlemin a zia hret chauh.

Heti khawpa zirtirtu indaih lohna a nasat lai hian SSA Mission hian thawktute a chhawr danah RTE dan a bawhchhe nasa hle a. RTE dan hian zirtirtute chu chhiarpui ah emaw, inthlan laia duty te emaw leh khuarel chhiatna ah emaw lo chuan hna dang thawhtir a phal lova. Mahse, Mizoramah chuan heng hna tul bik ni lo, assistant tih te, coordinator tih te, leh data entry operator ang te in zirtirtu engemaw zat chhawr lawr an ni reng a, tum khatah zirtirtu 63 lai hetiang hna dang thawh tir chang te a awm a, zirtir hna ni lo an thawh lai pawh hian hlawh pawh a vaiin cheng vbc 37.22 lai pek an ni nghe nghe. Hetianga zirtir hna ni lo an thawh lai hian indaih lohna hmunah chuan qualification bithliah mumal lova rawih Special Trainer te chu rawih an ni lawi thung.

 

SUM HMAN DAN DIK LO

Hman lohna turah sum hmang nasa

RTE dan hian sikul leh classroom thar sak nan te, inthiarna hmun sak nan te leh sikul hungna sakna turin sum hman theih a ni ang ti mahse, heng sikul mamawh te sakna tura tih sum hi hnathawh vilna tura hman a remti lova. Mahse, Mizoram SSA hnuaiah hian heng hnathawhna tura ruahman cheng vbc 85.96 atangin cheng nuai 354.26 chu pawhpen a ni ta tho tho a. CAG chuan hetianga sum pawhpen te hi chiang zawkin Aizawl leh Lunglei SSA bakah State Project Office ah a chhui a. Heng hmunah te hian hnathawh vil nan chauh an lo hmang awzawng lo: cheng nuai 55 chuang zet chu office chei nan te, officer te zin nan te, lirthei hman (hire) leh siamthat nan te leh bungraw leina atan te hman a lo ni daih mai.

State Matching Share pek theih loh vangin Mizoram SSA-in cheng vbc 336 a chan

Mizorama RTE dan kalpui nan hian sorkar laipui chuan cheng vbc 1,163.79 a bituk a, he sum bitukah hian sorkar laipui tum tur chu cheng vbc 1,047.41 a ni a, a dang chu state sorkar in a do letna tur State Matching Share (SMS) a ni thung. Mahse, state sorkarin a sum dawn te a hman dan kimchang Utilization Certificate a thehluh theih thin loh vang leh sum pek a nih tawh te chu a hun taka a hman zawh theih loh avangin a bituk an zat diak diak hi a pe ta lova, cheng vbc 710.86 chauh a pe ta zawk a ni. Tin, state sorkar hian SMS a pek ve tura ruahman cheng vbc 78.98 ah hian cheng vbc 74.22 chauh a pe ve thei bawk a. Heng te avang hian RTE dan kenkawhna tura ruahman cheng vbc 336.55 lai chu state hian a dawng thei ta lo a ni.

Chu a chhapah, state sorkar hian RTE sum hi sorkar laipuiin a pek atanga ni 15 chhungin SSA hnenah pekchhuah nghal thuai thuai tur a ni a. Mahse, Finance Department chuan heng a sum dawn te hi a pechhuak tlai fova, pekchhuah hun bituk hi ni 118 lai ten a bawhpel thin a. Tin, kum 2015 March thla khan School Education department chuan cheng vbc 7.45 lai chu civil deposit (k-deposit tia hriat lar) ah a dah bawk a ni.

 

STATISTICS RINHLELHAWM

Kumtin naupang sikul kai rual awm thar tura ngaih bak naupang singthum chuang te hi khawi ami nge?

Census 2011 chuan Mizoramah kum 2011 atanga kum 2016 chhungin kum tin naupang sikul kai rual nuai 1.8 leh nuai 1.9 inkar an awm belh dawn niin a chhut a. Mahse, Mizoram sorkar hnuaia Unified District Information System for Education (U-DISE) erawh chuan hemi hun chhung hian kum tin naupang nuai 2.1 chuangin sikul an kai thar ziah niin a chhinchhiah daih thung a. Chenna in tina enumerator te an luhchhuah hnua statistics buatsaihtu Census-in kum tin naupang sikul kai rual awm thar tur zat nia a ngaih leh U-DISE-in sikul kai thar a chhinchhiahna te hi khaikhin chuan, Census chhut dan aiin state sorkar chhinchhiahna ah chawrualin kum tin naupang 35,768 bawr velin an tam ta zawk ziah mai a ni. Amaherawhchu, hetianga statistics inthlau nasa lutuk finfiahna rintlak tura ngaih “child survey” chu Mizoram SSA hian a kalpui ngai miau loh avangin Census nge U-DISE hi dik zawk tih a hriat theih ta lova, Census hian a lo tisual nasa viau nge nia U-DISE hian sikul kai thar zat a lutukin a titam (inflate) zawk tih chu rinthu bak a ni thei ta tak tak lo.

Hetih rual hian sorkar statistics kawl that ah CAG chuan thil felhlel a hmuchhuak. Chu chu kum tina naupang sikul kai rual, sikul kai si lo (non-enrolment) leh sikul bansan (drop-out) zat chhinchiahna ah hian a ni. Naupang sikul kai rual, sikul kai si lo awm zat hi kum 2010-16 inkar khan a tlahniam nasa hle a, Primary school-ah bik chuan kum 2010-11 khan sang nga chuang an awm laiin 2015-16 ah chuan sang hnih an tling tawh lova, Upper Primary School (UPS) ah pawh hemi hun chhung vek hian 4,700 chuang atangin 1,500 ah a tla hman a, he chhinchhiahna ah hi chuan felhlel a awm lem lo niin a lang.

Mahse, sikul bansan zat chhinchhiahna ah erawh chuan felhlel a awm ngei niin CAG chuan a sawi: kum 2011-12 khan Primary sikul bansan kha naupang za zelah paruk (6.02%) an nih laiin kum 2013-14 khan za zela 28 chuang (28.53%) an ni ta daih a. Hemi hun lai vek hian UPS bansan chu za zela pakua (9.09%) atangin za zela 25 chuang (25.61%) a ni bawk a ni. Heti taka sikul bansan an tam tak nachhan hi CAG chuan sikul kai anga inziak, kai tak tak si lo an tam vang leh chung sikul kai tak tak lo te hming paih a nih tak vang niin a sawi.

Sorkar statistics rintlak lohna dang: pre-school naupang awm zat

v2i20-Table

RTE dan hnuaiah hian kum thum leh kum ruk inkar naupang te chu an upat deuh hnua an zirlaiah an hnufual loh nan pre-school din sak a, chutah chuan luh tir tur tih a ni a. Hetiang deuh hian Mizoramah pawh hmalakna awm ngei a, mahse, hmalakna kalphungah hian tu sawi ber nge awih tur hriat a harsa hle: School Education department leh he department hnuaia District Information System for Education (DISE) chhinchhiah dan a inang lo nasa hle a, pre-school zirtirna sikul awm zat leh naupang lut zat chhinchhiahna chu heng chhinchhiahnaah te hian a inang lo sung a ni ber.

 

RTE DAN KENKAWHNA ENDIK AH BAHLAH NASA

Hnuailam atanga ruahmanna siam turah chunglam atanga ruahmanna

RTE dan hnuaiah chuan naupang ten zirna tha an hmuh theuh theih nan kum tina sikul tin te enkawl dan tur leh an sum mamawh te ruahmanna felfai tak a awm tur a ni tih a ni a, hetianga ruahmanna te hian belhchian an dawl lehzual nan a chung lam atanga duan ni lovin, a hnuai lam – sikul tina School Management Committee te leh District tina thuneitute bakah khawtlang hruaitute’n in tin lutchhuaka zirchianna an duan (household survey) – atanga sikul tin mamawh te leh an sum mamawh zat te chu School Development Plan-ah tarlan a, chu SDP  hmang chuan ruahmanna siam zel tur a ni a.

Mahse, CAG-in Mizoram SSA Mission lehkha pawimawh te a chin meuh chuan a zir bing sikul 60, district pahniha awm te zingah hian pakhatmahin SDP hi an siam lova. Tin, Aizawl SSA bik hian vawikhatmah household survey an huaihawt lo bawk a, Lunglei SSA hian household survey hi khaw thlan bikah chauh an huaihawt bawk. SDP leh household survey a awm loh avang hian sorkar chuan sikul hrang hrangte mamawh chu U-DISE hmangin an ralkhat thlir a ni ber a, district hotute chuan hemi hmang chauh hian ruahmanna an siam thei a, hnuailam atang ni lovin chung lam atang zawkin ruahmanna te hi siam an ni ta tho tihna a nih chu.

 

Naupang kaihruai tu te’n kaihruaitu nei lo

Mizoram RTE Rules chuan state chhunga he dan kenkawh dan kaihruai turin State Advisory Council (SAC) din ni se a ti a, he council ah hian School Education Minister bakah member 14, naupang zirtirna lama tawnhriat lo nei tawh te leh department officer te an awm tur a ni a. Council member te hian an hna hi kum hnih chhung an chelh tur a nih bakah thla thum chhungin vawi khat tal an thu khawm tur tih ni bawk mahse, SAC hi kum sarih chhungin vawikhat chauh a thu khawm pek a nih chu. Tin, April 2010-a SAC member ruatte hian an term bawh pel in March 2013 thleng khan an nihna an chelh a, March 2013-a ruat tharte chuan August 2016 thleng khan an nihna an chelh lehzel bawk.

Naupang zawng zawngin a thlawna zirtirna an dawn theihna tur dan hian a tam thei ang ber a kuangkuah theih nan naupang te’n an chanvo an dawn loh changa sawiselna an thlen theihna turin State Commission for the Protection of Child Rights emaw Right to Education Protection Authority emaw din tur a ni a, he pawl hian awlsam taka biakpawh a nih theihna turin helpline leh SMS leh telephone hmanga biak a nih theihna tur a din tur a ni a. Mahse, CAG chuan hetiang thil hi din a ni lo tih a hmuchhuak a, din a nih loh vang hian naupang, an chanvo dawng lo te’n an thlavang hauh tur an nei ta lo a ni a ti.

Heti taka RTE dan kenkawh lamah a hnufual vang nge ni, Mizoram sorkar hian SSA guidelines in a phut angin dan hnuaia hmalakna te zirchiang a, duhthu a sam em tih chhuitu tur chu kum sarih chhungin a din lo.


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